Pakistan’s role in Afghanistan’s Reconstruction

Pakistan role in Afghanistan’s reconstruction and providing humanitarian assistance is neither highlighted by media nor Government of both Pakistan and Afghanistan.
There are many  major assistance projects which Pakistan had completed in afghanistan. A state of the art Allama Iqbal Faculty at Kabul University is completed. As a separate project, the Government of Pakistan is furnishing the Iqbal Faculty building. The building of Sir Syed Science Faculty Block is near completion in Nangarhar University, Jalalabad. The structure of Liaqat Ali Khan Engineering Faculty in Balkh University, Mazar-e-Sharif is almost complete. Rehman Baba High School in Kabul was completed, where 1200 students are currently enrolled. As another project on the same campus, hostel for 1000 students is under construction. Pakistan has donated buses for the students of Kabul University. A sprawling Jinnah Hospital Complex with ten towers is under construction in Kabul. It will provide the most modern health facility in the country. Civil work on Nishter Kidney Hospital in Jalalabad is completed. Afghan doctors, paramedics and technicians to run this facility are also trained in Pakistan. A 200 bed Naib Aminullah Khan Logari Hospital is under construction in Logar. Pakistan has also donated mobile field hospitals and ambulances to several provinces. Construction of Torkham-Jalalabad Road in eastern Afghanistan is completed. On request of the Afghan Government, Pakistan has undertaken to convert Torkham-Jalalabad road in a dual carriage highway. About 60 percent work is already completed on this project. With the assistance of Pakistan it has built three intra-city roads in Jalalabad and has provided earth-moving and road building machinery to various provinces. Government of Pakistan has donated fifty buses for public transportation, cash assistance to the Afghan Government and food packages to the needy and school supplies to students in large numbers.
Several other major projects, including two Eye Hospitals, Limb Centre at Badakhshan, two Nuclear Medical Centres in Kabul and Jalalabad, are in the pipeline.
Pakistan has committed US$330 million for reconstruction and assistance projects in Afghanistan. However, every dollar spent by Pakistan has more effect when it is compared with a dollar spent by other donors. Several industries in Afghanistan after 2001 are constructed by Pakistan. State-owned National Bank of Pakistan (NBP) was the first foreign bank to operate in Afghanistan after 9/11. Two private Pakistani banks have followed NBP to Afghanistan and telecommunication industry of Afghanistan drew Pakistani manpower, or Afghans trained in Pakistan. State-owned Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) pioneered the opening of Afghanistan to international air traffic.
Arianna Afghan Airlines uses Pakistan’s civil aviation training facilities.
Robust trade and economic interaction is another important feature of Pakistan-Afghanistan relations. Pakistan is the largest trading partner of Afghanistan.
Pakistan has provided transit trade facility to Afghanistan for decades without any reciprocity. The two countries are presently engaged in negotiating an improved Transit Trade Agreement to further facilitate Afghan transit trade through Pakistan.
To enhance Kabul’s connectivity to the world, Pakistan plans to improve its road links and develop rail connections with Afghanistan. An unlamented but sad casualty of foreign occupation and long civil war in Afghanistan was the strong performing art tradition of Afghanistan. Pakistan was instrumental in preserving at least some of this tradition as many performing artists took refuge, and grew professionally, during their stay in Pakistani cities. Today, a large number of Afghan artists have close links, and wide following, in Pakistan. The unique relationship between Pakistan and Afghanistan – which is rooted in common religion, culture, tradition, history and values – is not just a relationship between two states or governments. It is way beyond this. It is between the two peoples and societies. Pakistan-Afghanistan relationship is unmatched in spirit, level of interaction and variety of interface by relationship between any other two nations.

Strategic Importance of Gwadar Port for Pakistan

Introduction:

Gwadar Port is the third deep sea port in Pakistan after Karachi and Port Qasim. Located on the western end of Baluchistan coast, Gwadar has 600km long coastal belt with beaches and bays. It lies just 624 nautical km to the east of Strait of Hormuz, which is an important rout of oil tankers bound for Japan and western countries out of Persian Gulf. Once a small fishing town along the Makran Coast is now set to be become a mega seaport which will fulfill the requirement of three strategically important regions the oil rich Middle East, heavily populated South Asia and Western China and the economically emerging resource-laden region of Central Asia. The Gwadar port is expected to generate billions of dollars in revenues and create at least two million jobs. Gwadar port is the living symbol of Pak-China relationship. ECO highway, Coastal Highway and other mega projects in road sectors will connect Gwadar free port with Central Asian States, Gulf States, China and rest of the country. In 2007 government of Pakistan handed over port operations to PSA Singapore for 25 years.

The construction of a deep sea port at Gwadar is just one component of the Greater Gwadar Plan. Under this plan, which will be carried out by Gwadar Development Authority, in addition to Gwadar port, a network of roads, connecting Gwadar with Karachi, Pasni, Ormara and Turbat will be constructed in four phases.

Location:

The project was sited in an obscure fishing village Gwadar Pakistan’s western province of Baluchistan, bordering Afghanistan to the northwest and Iran to the southwest. Gwadar bounded by the Persian Gulf in the west and Gulf of Oman in the southwest located at the western end of Baluchistan coast, Gwadar has 600km long coastal belt with beaches and bays. It lies 624 nautical km to the east of Strait of Hormuz, 460km away from Karachi 120km Iranian border in the west.

History:

Until 1958 Gwadar was part of Oman but was transferred to Pakistan on 8 September 1958. The Gwadar enclave sold to Pakistan (effective 8 December 1958). First time in 1964 it was thought to build a port at Gwadar and but being ignored for four decades. It was integrated within the Baluchistan on 1 July 1977. In 1992, Gwadar fish harbor reached its completion. The Gwadar deep sea port project started in June 2002 with the help of China. By the end of 2004 first phase of port had been completed.

Geopolitical Importance:

Gwadar port has great strategic value, enhancing Pakistan’s importance in the whole region. It extended Pakistan’s importance from Persian Gulf through the Indian Ocean to Southeast Asia and the Fareast. It is close to the Strait of Hormuz, through which more than 13 million barrel oil per day passes.

Gwadar Port: A Gateway to Southwest and Central Asia:

The April 2002 inauguration of the Gwadar seaport project on the Arabian Sea coast in southern Baluchistan with the Chinese collection was a landmark event. When completed, the port is likely to open up new vistas of cooperation and development in the region. However, despite its inability to secure needed aid, Pakistan always sustained hope that some day the port facilities would serve as gateway to the Central Asian Republics. But the continued instability in Afghanistan put damper on these plans. It is expected that nearly 20 countries of the Middle East, Central Asian, South Asia and China will benefited from this mega-project. The port will provide facilities of warehousing, transshipment, transit, coastal trade, provision of commercial and industrial facilities for international export-import trade, especially that of Afghanistan, Central Asian States, Oman, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Iraq, Iran, China and other countries.

World’s natural energy is mostly concentrated in the Central Asian Republics Middle East. Countries like China and India, due to there ever growing population and increased industrial activity need additional energy. All these countries are looking for safe, cost effective and uninterrupted supply of natural energy to sustain their industrial growth and development. Pakistan, due to its geo-strategic location at the crossroads of three sub-regional systems i.e. South Asia, West Asia and Central Asia is in a position to bridge this gap by providing the shortest possible route for the transportation of this energy. The geo-strategic location of Pakistan at the interface of Central and South Asia provides these states the shortest possible route to the warm waters of the Arabian Sea. Pakistani ports of Karachi and Gwadar are barely 1600km away. Pakistan can provide these CARs with the transit trade and pipeline routs for the export of their oil and gas to the outside world, which the CARs desperately need for their economic development.

The Central Asia region has an area of 1.6 million square miles. Total oil reserves of the Caspian Sea region are estimated at above 200billion barrels. Currently total production is 1 million barrel per day. It is estimated that this could reach 3.4 million barrel per day by the year 2012, assuming the increased demand of oil in the world markets. On the other hand, total gas reserves are over 3,000 billion cubic meters. Natural gas reserves in the Caspian Region are even larger than the region’s oil reserves. Main reservoirs of oil and gas are in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. Due to natural resources politics of the Caspian Region would continue to dominate the course of events in all regional countries like Pakistan, Iran, India, China, Russia and other interested stake holders like US, Saudi Arabia and UAE. The first phase of the Gwadar port at a cost of 250 million dollars was being built with the Chinese assistance. China had provided 198 million dollar to Pakistan for the construction of Gwadar port. China also has invested 200million dollar to building a coastal highway that will connect the Gwadar port with Karachi, Establishment of industrial zone, oil storage and refining facilities adjacent to the port and export possibility of abundant mineral resources of Baluchistan, particularly from Saindak Copper-Gold Project, makes it more attractive. The Saindak project had also been leased out to a Chinese firm. Experts believe that even one Agosta 90B submarine deployed at Gwadar could defend the port due to its geographic advantage. Why the new emerging super power China has invested heavily in this project? China doesn’t have any port of hot waters, which can be used the whole year. The Shanghai port is approximately 4500 km away from Chinese industrial areas and takes an additional time. This costs them a lot in the form of duties and taxes as well. Compared to this Gwadar port is only at a distance of 2,500 km from China and the port will be working the whole year because of its hot waters.

China’s decision to finance the construction of Gwadar and coastal highway linking to Karachi will help its plans to develop western China. The distance from Kashgar to Chinese east coast is 3,500 km whereas distance from kashgar to Gwadar is only 1,500[1].

Geo-Political and Geo-Strategic ties between Pakistan and China:

Despite having a non-Nato ally status the honey-moon period between the USA and Pakistan is ion the decline. National priorities have been altered and the USA is in search of new friends and strategic partners, like India in our region. The policy makers in Islamabad realize the emerging bitter reality and should not act upon the good wishes of Washington with closed eye any more. Because everyone is following its hot pursuits similarly the government of Pakistan must look for the safe heaven for the expected rainy days in the future. Pakistan badly needs energy and , China can provide, or fulfill, our future energy requirements[2]. According to many regional experts close bilateral Pak-Sino ties may create geo-political and geo–strategic equilibrium in region in the days to come.

According to official figures, the annual trade between the two countries has already surpassed 7 billion dollars during 2008 and the sides are aiming to 15 billion dollars by 2011. With the coming of the agreement on trade in 11 services sectors from October 1,2009, which was signed in February this year during President Asif Ali Zardari’s visit to China, trade is further going to increase between the two countries .Currently, 70 percent of Pakistani’s exports to China are cotton yarn and cotton fabric. Pakistan is also exploring its options with Qatar to construct a five billion dollars gas pipeline project to supply 1.6 billion cubic feet a day. This pipeline would supply natural gas from Qatar’s North Dome Field to Pakistan via a sub sea pipeline from Oman. China is also exploring ways to tap Saudi Arabian gas through Gusa Gas Company of Qatar that already has a joint venture for a deep sea pipeline with Pakistan. China and Pakistan have agreed in principle to build trans-Karakoram oil pipeline along the Karakorum Highway to connect Middle East with North-western China through Gwadar. A blue print of proposed 3300 km long Karakoram oil pipeline was also presented by

Pakistan; this entails a 30-inch diameter pipeline from Gwadar to Khunjerab. The proposed pipeline will be able to handle 12 million tones of oil per year and would cost between US $ 4.5 and 5 billion.

Development of Gwadar Port:

Pakistan, with the partial financial and technical assistance of China, had completed the first phase of a deep-sea port in the south-western city of Gwadar, located at the opening of the energy-rich Persian Gulf. The port was formally inaugurated on 20th march 2007 by Pakistan’s President, Pervez Musharraf, and the Chinese communication minister, Li Shasheng. China has also agreed to participate in phase-2 of the Gwadar Port Project, which will be completed at a cost of $600 million[3]. Phase-2 will include : four container berths ; one bulk cargo terminal  (to handle 100,000 DWT ships) ; one grain terminal ; one Ro-Ro terminal ; and two oil terminal (to handle 200,000 DWT ships).

Up-gradation Of The Karakoram Highway:

The decision to up-grade of KKH was taken during President Musharraf’s visit to China in February 2006, when Pakistan. President Musharraf said, “This road, when up-graded will provide the shortest route to the sea for products manufactured in China. The same road can serve to provide overland route for trade between China and India, thus linking two of the largest markets in Asia” we are talking of Pakistan-China inter-connectivity in terms of energy and trade, improvement in highways, development of railway link and gas and oil pipeline linkages and even fibre-optic connectivity along the highway under one project”. Pakistan is also constructing a network of highways and railways with the country[4]. To facilitate a North-South Trans Energy Corridor (TEC) Karachi has been linked with Gwadar through a coastal highway, and plains are underway to link it to Iran as well. Another major 950 km long highway, connecting Gwadar to Turbat, Khuzdar and Ratodero, will be completed in the next 30 month.

Construction of Railways:

A railway line along the KKH, connecting Pakistan and China is being considered as an integral part of the Trade and Energy Corridor Project. The purpose of building a rail line is not only for trade purposes but also to transport energy, in case a pipe line is not a variable option. This rail track will be link to Gwadar, where oil-refining and storage facilities are being constructed. Pakistan railways has short-listed too companies, one from china and the other one are joint German-Austrian companies, ILF Consulting Engineers, for the study of 1000 km rail-track.

Energy Co-operation and Pipelines:

A fame work agreement on Energy Co-operation was signed in Beijing on 29th Feb 2006, between the Ministry of Petroleum and natural Resources of Pakistan and the National Development Reforms Commission of China. In the pursuance of this agreement, the first Energy Forum was held in Islamabad from 25-27 April 2006.at the Energy Forum, a blue print of the proposed 3300 km long Karakoram oil Pipeline was also presented by Pakistani side; this entails a 30-inch diameter pipeline from Gwadar to khunjerab, passing through Awaran, Pir Muhammad, Khuzdar, Shikarpur, D. I. Khan, Kundian, Mianwali, Talagang, Pindi Ghaib, Fateh Jang, Haripur, Mansehra ,Patan, Dasu, Chilas, Bunjil, Gilgit, Sust, and Khunjerab pass[5].

Benefits for Pakistan:

Pakistan can fulfill her energy needs which are beyond her indigenous production, additionally she can also accrue number of benefits such as:

1)      Enhance trade with CARs / Middle East.

2)      The relations with neighboring and regional countries can be improved and trade can be enhanced.

3)      Through IPI /TAPI pipelines, relations with India can be normalized and that can also act as CBMs.

4)      Pakistan can earn lot of foreign exchange through transit fee and improve her foreign exchange reserves.

5)      The transit fee can be utilized for development purpose.

6)      There will be a gradual growth and improvement in most of the backward areas and towns / villages.

7)      The living conditions and literacy rate of these areas can also be improved.

8)      Lot of new jobs would come up due to new projects which would lower the overall rate of unemployment.

9)      Tourism and hotel industries can be boosted as no of foreigners would be visiting Pakistan for the construction of these projects.

10)    It would improve the overall economy of the country.

Conclusion:


Located at the entrance of the Persian Gulf and about 460 kms from Karachi, Gwadar has had immense Geostrategic significance on many accounts. The continued unstable regional environment in the Persian Gulf in particular as a result of the Iran/Iraq war, the Gulf war and the emergence of the new Central Asian States has added to this importance. Considering the Geo-economic imperative of the regional changes, the ADB’s Ports Master Plan studies considered an alternate to the Persian Gulf Ports to capture the transit trade of the Central Asian Republic (CAR) as well as the trans-shipment trade of the region.

It’s amazing that tomorrow’s small fishing village ‘Gwadar’ is fast emerging as a Deep Sea Port today. This is important to note that the Government of Pakistan, keeping in view its utmost significance in the area, has declared ‘Gwadar’ as a Duty Free Port and a Free Economic Zone.
In fact, Gwadar enjoys the status of a third Deep Sea Port of Pakistan which has a special significance with reference to trade links with Central Asian Countries, Persian Gulf, East Africa, United Arab Emirates and North Western India.

 

 

 

 


[1] Imtiaz Bokhari, “The US, Oil and Geopolitics of the Persian Gulf”, IPRI Journal, Vol. IV, No. 2 (2004), p. 51.

[2] Lin Shanglin, “Pakistan-China Relations”, Pakistan Horizon, Vol. 54, No. 3 (July 2008), p. 13.

[3]  Tariq Mahmud, “Afghanistan in Chinese Strategy Toward South and Central Asia”, China Brief, Vol. 8, No. 10 (2008), p. 27.

[4] Safdar Khan, “Karakoram Highway’s Gwadar Link Likely”, Dawn (5 July 2006), p. 5.

[5] Iftikhar Ahmad, “Regional and International Interest in Oil and Gas Pipelines to Gwadar”, The Dialogue, Vol. II, No. 2 (2007), p. 127.

Extremism in Pakistan

Introduction:

American support to Israeli’s occupation, Indian terrorism in Kashmir, Russian aggression in Afghanistan and Chechnya, and western anti Islamic campaign under “Clash of Civilization” generated savage culture of bloodshed. Extremism in Pakistan is fallout of Russian invasion of Afghanistan (1989), fueled by Shia-Sunni proxy war, aggravated by Pakistan’s assistance to Mujahedeen, finally, accelerated after 9/11. The chain of madressas allegedly funded through ‘dollars’, misinterpreted Islam. Social injustice, illiteracy and chronic poverty added fuel to the fire. US pressure to “Do More” syndrome angered the disgruntled warriors. Above all, General Zia and Musharraf’s solo policy-making made Pakistan “A Front line State”. Resultantly people of Pakistan, painfully suffered by suicide bombings and attack on peace keeping agencies.

Extremism is a critical problem faced by Pakistani society today leading to social, economic, cultural, political turmoil and humanitarian crises. It has nurtured due to internal and external factors. Internal factors are the prevalence of social injustice, inequality, illiteracy and exploitation in the society. External factors are the involvement of Pakistan in the regional and international power game and proxy wars. Modus operandi of extremism is the expression of a fanatic behavior by individuals and groups, who are not able to convey their will in the society, through prevalent social mechanism. The people who cannot exert their influence, in the decision making process, go for violent means to express their opinion[1]. As a result we see anarchy in the society. This situation fuels the flames of poverty, terrorism and social distress. Extremism can be of different types, it can be ethnic, linguistic, narrow nationalism but the most severe kind of extremism faced by our society is religious extremism.

The present bloody scenario presents a gruesome picture of Pakistan Army fighting in South Waziristan. The IDPs have terribly suffered financial, mental and physical losses. The foreign terrorist, indifferent to our national interest, have taken refuge in tribal areas to the utter wrath of US. The uncontrolled drone attacks are killing terrorists along with innocent masses. The liberal personality of Benazir murdered ruthlessly. Minorities are targeted by these extremists. The recent incidents like attack on Christians in Gojra and attack on Qadiyanis in Lahore are the examples of extremism.

Historical Background:

The dilemma of using religion in Pakistan’s politics for political gains intensified during the Zia period from 1977 to 1988, once he was enforcing his Islalmization policies. The Zia’s era coupled with start of Afghan War not only encouraged the rise of ethnic and religious parties on sectarian lines under varying interpretations of Islam, but also ultimately gave rise to Sunni-Shea confrontations that further polarized the society[2]. A network of Madaris emerged and flourished throughout the country. They provided a breeding ground for the Jihadi elements under the backing of Saudi Arabia, other Arab countries and west led by US. The trend thus set, got the boost from the success of the Jihad and the Islamists around the world considered religion as the decisive factor in their struggle against oppression and political injustice[3].

Factors Contributing To This ‘Madness’:

There are many factors which contribute to this madness.

Aftermaths of Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan:

On 27 December 1979 the Soviet forces invaded Afghanistan and the intervention created great alarm for Pakistan. Historical czarist ambition for access to warm water of Arabian Sea was clear. Zia regime acted as front line of Afghan guerrilla war and sought political, economic and military support from US[4]. Religious feelings and Jihadi spirit were mobilized for Afghan resistance. Extremist elements were encouraged and supported economically for training Afghan and other Mu-slim nationals from a host of countries to wag war against Soviets. The freehand were given to the extremists and Jihadists. After the defeat of Soviet these Jihadists and extremists became trouble for Pakistan. The corruption, abundance of weapons and narcotics has enflamed extremism to new heights.

Misinterpretation of Jihad:

Presently different concepts about Islam and Jihad are floating in the minds of the people. Some hold that Islam is a religion of wars and battles i.e. terrorism; others label it with extremism. In reality Islam neither promotes terrorism nor encourages extremism. It preaches tolerance and moderation. Islam forbids killing without justification. Similarly different concepts of Jihad are also agitating human minds and a distorted concept is being projected everywhere[5].

The most common misunderstanding has been created by Muslims themselves. Many Muslim Scholars have declared Jihad synonymous with Qital (war). On the other hand after the incident of 9/11 Islam has been consciously or unconsciously amalgamated with war, terrorism and violence. Obviously, Islam cannot be blamed for the conduct of the Muslims, especially, when their conduct is not reflective of Islamic values. Islam is the most liberal and pluralist religion. In Islam there is no room for violence and terrorism except defensive war[6]. Islam is special. It is more than a religion; it is a complete socio-political system. That is, it has both cultural-ethical and political aspects[7].

Role of US Policies:

US policies are one of the major causes of extremism in Muslim world especially Pakistan. US interference in Pakistan’s internal affairs has provoked extremism. US policy of do more and drone attacks aggravated extremism in Pakistan. Since September 2001 till today, that is, just within nine years the US has lost much of its good will. It has lost its moral foundations essentially because of its foreign policy. Anti-Americanism has increased due to its imperialistic attitude of not listening to its allies its outright disdain of international law, erosion of its moral ground imposition of its own culture and values upon others. Botched diplomacy, imperialistic policies and brutal expression of its power have left legacy of resentment, fear and anxiety especially in Muslim World[8].

Many Muslims stressed that Israel’s political and territorial strength has not been domestically resourced but it is American assistance. Further Muslims hold that the US has persistently overlooked that its side with the state that has been progressively taken over by Jewish extremists. From 1945 to 2003, the US attempted to overthrow than 40 foreign governments, and to crush more than 30 populist-nationalist movements fighting against intolerable regimes. In the process, the US bombed some 25 countries, caused the end of life for several million people, and condemned many million more to a life of agony and despair [9]. America treats itself above all laws and conventions. Its shameless invasion of Iraq, the merciless massacre of its innocent civilians and horrific torture of suspects swelled the ranks of American-haters and created many a suicide bombers.[10]

Ineffective Security Council of UN:

Ineffective Security Council has established American hegemony at the cost of freedom of Muslim countries. The UN charter allows an attack against any aggressor, if it is in the common interest of the members states. Further the peace-keeping forces of Security Council could invade the country. After 9/11, the American resolution was unanimously passed against the Taliban’s regime. But, while invading Iraq, President Bush said, “We will bypass Security Council”. Unfortunately, this world body kept criminal silence over this injustice[11]. The Charter promises that no country can interfere in the internal matters of the member state. In contrast, the SC resolutions on Kashmir have been declared outdated. Likewise, North Korea is only facing sanctions, even after launching successful nuclear tests. Whereas, Iran is continuously being threatened by use of force, as in Obama’s words “Iran’s nuclear programme is against American Security”. American blue eyed, Israel is adamant to implement agreed peace Accord. So, Security Council has been a shameful failure in protecting the legitimate rights of the Muslim world[12].

Similarly, the UN charter does not allow any state to interfere in the internal matters of other member state. While Bush’s claim of bringing democracy in Iraq and liberation of Iraqis from the tyrant regime of Saddam are violation of the charter. In the same way American criticism of Ahmadi Nijad’s second term of presidency and Richard Holbrooke’s dictation to Pakistan are mockery of the world system. Finally Security Council could not check extremism in America. The extremist groups justify their lethal actions against this backdrop of helplessness and injustice.

Unemployment and Suicidal Poverty:

The slow economic and human development process, with the rise in population and unequal distribution of resources has created a large deprived and unemployed class. The rising unemployment, particularly among the students of religion, is creating a dangerous situation. The rising poverty is creating suicide bomber.

Chronic Illiteracy:

Illiterate people do not fairly understand the essence of the teachings of Islam due to lack of adequate knowledge of religion. They listen from religious teacher or from poorly educated Mullahs about Islam in local languages without a chance of even verifying at later stage owing to lack of sufficient knowledge of local language. Hence, they start following it and don’t worry about its athencity.

Decline in Tradition of Ijtihad:

The decline of the established tradition of jihad interpretation of Quran by Muslim clerics to apply Quranic law to changing circumstances-has lead to rigid and narrow interpretations of religious precepts. The crisis emerged for almost half a century now.

Poor Governance and Unequal Development:

The poor governance and the lack of the ability of the government to address the problems arising owing to rapid growth of population, for example lack of basic civic facilities, social injustices and other other developmental issues. Many of the extremist groups in Pakistan are centered in the middle sized towns, whose population has grown exponentially because of rapid rural to urban migration in recent decades. Throughout the Muslim worlds, extremist religious groups tend to be more influential in locations where local governments are least effective in addressing developmental challenges.

Logical Consequences of Growing Menace:

Some consequences are given below.

Religious Discord and Sectarianism:

The religious harmony was the first causality of the extremism. The curse of extremism and intolerance, besides creating a rift between various religious factions, has widened the gulf between the followers of different beliefs. The conflict of interest and hidden motives had affected religious harmony in the country. Religious extremists have created sectarianism throughout the country. They are hitting the opposite sects and they interpreted Islam according to them and impose it upon others.

Effects on Economic Growth and Nation-wide Fear:

Infrastructure has destructed due to extremists and terrorists activities. No foreigner is ready to invest in Pakistan due to law and order situation. Growth rate is declined to 2.4 and foreign debts are increased to 55 billion dollars. Due to instability and insecurity brain drain has increased at maximum level. Whole nation is under depression and feel insecure even to go to markets and Mosques. There is no security of common person’s life and wealth.

Extremist Image of Pakistan:

Though Pakistan is victim of extremism and terrorism yet it is labeled as sponsoring terrorism in the world. After the incident of Lahore in which Qaiyanis were attacked Pakistan was pressurized to control religious extremism. Though Pakistan has suffered a lot in the wage of terrorism yet World Community see Pakistan as safe heaven of extremism. After the incident of Time Squire, Pakistan is threatened by Hilary Clinton.

Pragmatic Solutions to Convert This Hell into Heaven:

  • There must be a strong parliament to tackle this issue.
  • There should be modern syllabus in Midrassas along with religious curriculum.
  • Madrassas should be under the command of government.
  • Pakistan should revise its policy towards war on terror.
  • UNO should play effective role in solving international disputes.
  • There must be effective role of OIC and SCO.
  • There must be sincere interfaith harmony among different religions.
  • Global media should play constructive role.
  • There should be positive mind set up against terrorism and extremism.
  • Social justice would provide base for up rooting of terrorism.
  • There must be equality so that there would be no inferiority complex.
  • US should revise its policies towards Muslim World.
  • Pakistan must be emphasized on education at maximum level.

Conclusion:

Though Pakistan is victim of extremism and terrorism yet it is labeled as sponsoring terrorism in the world. Though Pakistan has suffered a lot in the wage of terrorism yet World Community see Pakistan as safe heaven of terrorism. Suicide bombings in shopping malls, hotels, common business centers and on roads not only affected local economy but also drained foreign investments from Pakistan. Pakistan has suffered the colossal financial losses of more than $68 billion or Rs 5036.8 billion in the so called war on terror since 2001 while human loss is around 40,000. The war spread like a contagion into rural and urban areas of Pakistan that has so far, cost the country more than 35,000 citizens, 3500 security personnel, destruction of infrastructure, internal migration of millions of people from parts of northwestern Pakistan, erosions of investment climate, nose diving of production and growing unemployment and above all brought economic activity to a virtual standstill in many part of the country, says Economic Survey 2010-11.
 

 


[1] Imtiaz Shahid, World Affairs (Lahore: Advanced Publishers, 2010), p. 261.

[2] Hassan Abbas, Pakistan’s Drift into Extremism, ‘Allah, The Army, and America’s War on Terror’ (New Delhi: Pentagon Press, 2005), p. 101.

[3] Zahid Hussain, Frontline Pakistan: The Struggle With Militant Islam (Lahore: Vanguard Books, 2007), p. 79.

[4] Abdul Sattar, Pakistan’s Foreign Policy 1947-2005 (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 155.

[5] Zamir Akhtar, “Concept of Jihad in Islam”, The Dialogue, Vol. III, No. 2 (2008), p. 168.

[6] M. Nazeer Kaka, “The Concept of Jihad in Islam”, The Dialogue, Vol. II, No.3 (2007), p. 67.

[7] Dilip Hiro, War Without End (London: Routledge, 2002), p. 18.

[8] Qadar Bakhsh Baloch, “American Intervention in the Muslim World: Before and Beyond 9/11”, The Dialogue, Vol. I, No. 3 (2006), p. 1.

[9] William Blum, Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions since World War II, (London: Zed Books, 2003), p.3952.

[10] S.G. Jilanee, “Why They Love To Hate America?”, South Asia, Vol.14, No. 2 (2010), p.17.

[11] Shamshad Ahmad, “Post 9/11 Turnaround”, World Times, Vol. 2, No. 3 (2008), p. 7.

[12] Michael Scherer, “The Five Pillars of Obama’s Foreign Policy”, World Times, Vol.3, No. 11 (2009), p. 14.

POST 9/11 US POLICY TOWARDS TERRORISM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR PAKISTAN

Introduction:                                                                                                              

The events of 9/11 represented a critical threshold in Pakistan’s foreign policy. General Musharraf was among the first foreign leaders to have received a clarion call from Washington. “You are either with us or against us” was the massage[1]. With its own post independence political history replete with endemic crises and challenges that perhaps no other country in the world had ever experience, Pakistan stood there aghast already burdened with a legacy of multiple challenges, both domestic and external, when the tragedy of 9/11 presented it with new ominous realities, and also an opportunity to think anew and act anew [2]. Pakistan faced the worst dilemma of its life. It did not know which way to go and which way not to. Terrorism became world’s foremost and “unifocal” concern transcending all other global challenges.

US-Pakistan relations in historic perspective:

Over the last six decades relations between Pakistan and US have seen many ups and downs, punctuated by intense engagement by and strong distinct estrangement. Each country has tried to influence other with its own peculiar needs. Pakistan once viewed, as the most allied ally when suited to US interest in 1950s, became the most sectioned ally of the US in 90s. The intensity of relations varied from one extreme to that of completely ignoring the other as in 1971, to that of urgent action as was seen immediately after the invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union in December 1979 or during the war on terrorism after 9/11[3]. A new era of US-Pakistan relations started after the event of 9/11. Pakistan took u-turn towards Afghanistan[4]

Anti Americanism in the Muslim world:

Since September 2001 till today, that is, just within nine years the US has lost much of its good will and probably all of its moral foundations essentially because of its foreign policy, its imperialistic attitude of not listening to its allies and its outright disdain for international law, erosion of its moral ground and imposition of its own culture and values upon others. Botched diplomacy, imperialistic policies and brutal expression of its power have left legacy of resentment, fear and anxiety especially in the Muslim World[5].

Many Muslims also stressed that Israel’s political and territorial strength has not exactly been domestically resourced. It has developed rather as a rentier state, depending heavily on outside, specifically American, assistance. From 1949 to 2002 US grants to Israel totaled over $ 87 billion and from 1991 the annual amount registered a dramatic rise, reaching a little more than $4 billion in the fiscal year of 2000.  Further Muslims hold that the US has persistently overlooked that its sides with the state that has been progressively taken over by Jewish extremists[6].

From 1945 to 2003, the US attempted to overthrow than 40 foreign governments, and to crush more than 30 populist-nationalist movements fighting against intolerable regimes. In the process, the US bombed some 25 countries, caused the end of life for several million people, and condemned many million more to a life of agony and despair[7]. America treats itself above all laws and conventions. Its shameless invasion of Iraq, the merciless massacre of its innocent civilians and horrific torture of suspects swelled the ranks of American-haters and created many a suicide bombers[8].

When the US indulges in military adventures abroad, it is not free of reaction at home. People within the US have been influenced by an increasing appreciation of what their country represents to the outside world[9].

Post 9/11 challenges faced by Pakistan:

Pakistan faced worst dilemma of life. It seemed as Pakistani president and officials have become the sole spokesmen for the US in threatening the Taliban and want to convey that our cooperation in the US lead effort is unconditional and we would not even let our national interest and integrity come in way of this cooperation. In Musharraf own words, 9/11 “came as a thunderbolt” presenting acute challenges as well as opportunities[10].

The important challenges faced by Pakistan in changed world scenario after 9/11 events are Pakistan nuclear program, Kashmir issue, anti terrorism movement, and the economy of Pakistan, indo-US strategic and civil cooperation agreements, a ten years defense pact, a nuclear agreement and agreement on civil nuclear cooperation[11]. The situation in Pakistan has assumed many alarming proportions as the suicide bombers that once targeted the American soldiers and Western installations in Afghanistan has turned their guns towards Pakistan[12].

Pakistani forces are fighting against terrorists and insurgents on its own soil. Drone attacks on our people by US led forces have become daily routine. US special operations forces seemed in FATA to provoke Pakistan army to launch full scale attack in North Waziristan[13].

The latest act of terrorism has ensured that Pakistani living America will again be singled out in their workplace, recreational centers, school, colleges, restaurants, trains, buses, and even on the streets[14]. Pak army are fighting against terrorists and all these thorns will be gradually weeded out from our garden, our Pakistan[15].

Conclusion:

A proxy war is being fought on our soil. PAKISTAN IS THE ONLY Muslim country with an ongoing military operation against its own people. We have brought the anti-Taliban war into Pakistan which puts our armed forces on the wrong side of the people. Our sovereignty is being violated with impunity. Our freedom of action in our own interest is being questioned and undermined. We are accepting the responsibility for crimes we have not committed. Our problems are further implicated by the complex regional configuration with American sitting in Afghanistan, new Indo-US nexus and Indian increasing influence in Afghanistan. Our domestic failures have seriously constricted our foreign policy options. Our problems are not external but domestic. We need domestic consolidation, politically, economically and socially.


[1] Pervez Musharraf, In the Line of Fire (New York: Free Press, 2006), p. 201.  

[2] Shamshad Ahmad, “Post-9/11 Turnaround”, World Times, Vol. 2, No. 3 (2008), p. 7.

[3] Qadar Baksh Bloch, “Engagement and Estrangement in US-Pakistan Relations”, The Dialogue, (Peshawar: Quarterly Journal) Vol. 1, No. 4 (2006), p. 28.

[4] “Pakistan Foreign Relations” (Islamabad: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2002), p. 77.

[5] Qadar Bakhsh Bloch, “American Intervention in the Muslim World: Before and Beyond 9/1”, The Dialogue, (Peshawar: Quarterly Journal) Vol. 1, No .3 (2006), p. 1.

[6] Amin Saikal, Islam and the WEST: Conflict or Cooperation? (United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p. 90.

[7] William Blum, Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions since World War II (London: Zed Books, 2003), p. 352.

[8] S.G. Jilanee, “Why They Love To Hate America?”, South Asia, Vol. 14, No. 2 (2010), p. 17.

[9] Ishrat Saleem, “Americans Against American Policies”, Daily Times (May 5, 2010), p. 5.

[10] “Pakistan Chronology” (Islamabad: Ministry of Information and Media Development, 2001-2008), p. 55.

[11] Sajjad Shaukat, “Defence Day: We Are At War”, The Post (September 7, 2009), p. 5.

[12] Shabbir Chaudhry, “Suicide Bombing”, World Times, Vol. 2, No. 3 (2008), p.16.

[13] Javed Hussain, “A War Without End”, Dawn (May 3, 2010), p. 7.

[14] Anjum Niaz, “Good News and Bad”, The News (May 5, 2010), p. 7.

[15] Muhammad Amjad, “A tribute to Our Shuhada”,  Pakistan Observer (May 5, 2010), p. 5.

America’s Interests in South Asia

  “South Asia is most dangerous place” on the earth, said by President Clinton when he was going to visit South Asia in 2000. This statement shows that how much America keen about the region. Before World War II America was not very much involve in this region but after the war US’s primary objective was to develop relations with the states of South Asia who came in to being all of a sudden after the end of World War II.  After 1945 US realize that there lies world’s 40 percent population which may go to communist block. By looking this, US started to develop ties with South Asian states. The region has always been an area where great powers used to play games at large (A.Z Hilali, 2010). We can say that the South Asian states are players between world powers to, especially between US and Russia and China.

In 1950s Pakistan’s number was second in receiving aid and then the rest of the states. Military aid to Pakistan was in the shape of two agreements known as SEATO and SENTO in 1954 and 1955 respectively, although these agreements never came in to practice as for as it was the case for Pakistan. Later on US do facilitate and assist Pakistan by giving weapons and ammunition especially during the soviet’s invasion in Afghanistan. And with the incident of 9/11, US aid to Pakistan in almost every sphere increased dramatically as Pakistan had become the major ally for US in the region as it was in 1979. Another important state of the region is India which has become very vital for US now days. US throughout the history has assisted more than of Pakistan justifying it with the statements that India is much larger than of Pakistan so there is no comparison of aid or assistance. While growing Indian economy and power is also in favor of US as she wants a state in the region which can counter the Chinese influence from further growing in Afghanistan. Pakistan as a front line state in so called “war against terrorism” and India as a state of having capacity of becoming regional power has made this region very important for Washington. South Asia today is one of the world’s greatest laborites of political, economics and social changes and challenges. To meet these challenges US had many purposes. Main purpose of US foreign policy towards South Asia is to achieve its global strategic and political goals. US’s goal in the region are not shaped or concerned with the states at large but they concerned with the usage of these states against China and Russia. For this purpose US gave started to give economic aid to South Asian states as it is the “instrument” of US foreign policy (Charles Wolf, 1964). Before 1945, US interests in the region were very limited and perhaps only were linked to commercial. The American Tobacco Company was making trade with South Asia and many American students of history and education came to South Asia for research in the region which was full of religious and cultural heritage. These were the pre war connections. After World War II most of the states of the Asia, Africa and Europe were weak in military and economics and UK was also no more able to lead the world, so it was American’s turn to lead the world and to maintain balance of power in the world. So US left its traditional policy of “isolationism” and joined world affairs effectively. Main ambition of US was to prevent the area from Soviet communism. Fro this it looked for close cooperation and friends in South Asia too because of its vital position and large number of world’s population.

Primarily US policy should be based on these six principles in South Asia which were made by the policy makers; Firstly always be considered in the light of American national interests in their worldwide extent, secondly recognize the present American heavy involvement and great stake in the future to the countries and people of the area, thirdly develop an integrated approach that gives due attention to the impact of specific actions and of long-term policies on the balance of forces there, fourthly pay special attention to the internal dynamics of the political and social systems, fifthly be based on independent appraisal to avoid any impression of simply endorsing the positions of other countries in the area and outside and sixthly avoid any pressure to “choose” Pakistan and India (Charles Wolf, 1964).

Pakistan as being the second largest state of the region has always remained an “open” country for US throughout the history, because of its geographical location and especially being as an adjacent state to Afghanistan. Several times Pakistan has been remained an important country for US in the region. After getting independence Pakistan was looking for an international partner which can assure Pakistan’s sovereignty and to prevent any aggression from India. Pakistan’s purpose was not to contain communism but to ensure its defense and independence by joining world power. This lead to Pakistan’s shift towards US block. Both signed Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement in 1954, followed by SEATO and CENTO in 1954 and 1955 (Phillips Talbot and S.L. Polpai, 1958). There were also feelings in America that by giving military assistance to Pakistan, we can win the trust of Pakistan. Some events which made Pakistan a close country to US because it was Pakistan who paved the way to US to go to make diplomatic relations with China even during Cold War in 1971. Pakistan set the foundations for both sides especially for US to negotiate their disputes. In 1979, when Soviets invaded in Afghanistan, US became fearful of Soviet communist expansionism. So it asked for Pakistan to help in this regard and Pakistan did it. US provided weapons, money, ammunition, technology and experts to Pakistan to counter Soviets. It was a long war which was fought jointly by Pakistan and Afghan Mujhadins from 1979 to 1989. Attacks of 9/11 on US made once again Pakistan as a close ally of US, as US was going to start war against Afghanistan. Pakistan was the neighboring state, so it got real importance at the scene. US demanded Air basis, intelligence sharing and logistic support from Pakistan which was fulfilled. As a result US declared Pakistan as “major non-NATO Ally”, on June 2004, with the statement that “this status would further enhance relations in defense and cooperation between the two sides”. Because of its proximity to Afghanistan and formerly close to Taliban and being an Islamic country possessing nuclear capability, Pakistan was considered to be very crucial to root out terrorism in the region with the collaboration of US.

Later in 1960s and 1970s the US was not very much in the affairs of South Asia. It adopted the policy of neutrality during the Indo-Pak wars of 1965 and 1971 which hurt Pakistan more than of India. These two decades were a matter for Pakistani leaders to think seriously about changing US behavior towards Pakistan. This US attitude will not facilitate Pakistan in any future war so Pakistan should not be dependent only on US. But during the Russian invasion in Afghanistan in 1979 was another turn in the Pak-US relations, as US was looking for the containment of communism in the region, Pakistan became most important to US and became a front line state in the Afghan Jihad against Soviets.

At the moment condition for US in Pakistan is not good because of the growing terrorism in Pakistan; public opinion is rapidly turning against US. This is a real threat to Washington as well as to the government of Pakistan, because it would lead to the change in the government set up and the next government may have anti-American ideas. In order to be there and to normalize public, US organized “Strategic Dialogue” with Pakistan, whose first round held in Washington on 24-25 March 2010 and second would be held in Islamabad in July. During these dialogues Pakistan and US made several agreements on trade, communication, technology, weapons, education, human development, energy, defense, terrorism, security (Anees ur Rehman, 2010). Agriculture and many other fields. Some consider these dialogues as the most important talks between the both sides ever in history. But even these dialogues, US leadership is still saying that Pakistan is not very much serious in taking actions against militants which are having there safe heaven in northern areas of Pakistan and on Pak-Afghan border. US have put pressure on Pakistan to take actions against these militants and asked for “do more”. Although sometimes, President Obama has praised the action of Pakistan armed forces in FATA and Swat.

Nuclear weapons in the hands of newly developing states were a great threat to US and international peace, so being the superpower US took initiative towards Pakistan and India on two concerns. First that there would be no deployment of nuclear weapons and second was that US got assurance from both sides that they would not go into serious and sensitive nuclear war. Furthermore US also made plea of the no more experiment or development of ballistic missiles. US leadership’s policies have done well in the region either they are in the shape of embargo, sanctions or cut down in economic aid. However major issues such as Kashmir are still to be solved where India is showing no relaxation. The need is to bring India on negotiation in this matter too and US can do it. Another way of the salvation of Kashmir issue is the mediation of US but at the moment US is not ready as well as India is continuously saying that it is bilateral issue and we would not accept any third party’s involvement in the matter.

Role of USA in Expanding Extremism in Pakistan

American support to Israeli’s occupation, Indian terrorism in Kashmir, Russian aggression in Afghanistan and Chechnya, and western anti Islamic campaign under “Clash of Civilization” generated savage culture of extremism. Extremism in Pakistan is fallout of Russian invasion of Afghanistan (1989), aggravated by Pakistan’s assistance to Mujahedeen, finally, accelerated after 9/11. Some madressas allegedly funded through ‘dollars’, misinterpreted Islam. Social injustice, illiteracy and chronic poverty added fuel to the fire. US pressure to “Do More” syndrome angered the disgruntled warriors. Above all, General Zia and Musharraf’s solo policy-making made Pakistan “A Front line State”. Resultantly people of Pakistan, painfully suffered by suicide bombings and attack on peace keeping agencies. Extremism is a critical problem faced by Pakistani society today leading to social, economic, cultural, political turmoil and humanitarian crises. It has flourished due to internal and external factors. Internal factors are the prevalence of social injustice, inequality, illiteracy and exploitation in the society. External factors are the involvement of Pakistan in the regional and international power game and proxy wars. Modus operandi of extremism is the expression of a fanatic behavior by individuals and groups, who are not able to convey their will in the society, through prevalent social mechanism. As a result we see anarchy in the society. This situation fuels the flames of poverty, terrorism and social distress. Extremism can be of different types, it can be ethnic, linguistic, narrow nationalism but the most severe kind of extremism faced by our society is religious extremism.

The present bloody scenario presents a gruesome picture of Pakistan Army fighting in FATA. The IDPs have terribly suffered financial, mental and physical losses. The foreign terrorist, indifferent to our national interest, have taken refuge in tribal areas to the utter wrath of US. The uncontrolled drone attacks are killing terrorists along with innocent masses. Minorities are targeted by these extremists. Incidents like attack on Christians in Gojara and murder of Federal Minister Shabaz Bhatti are the examples of extremism.  On 27 December 1979 the Soviet forces invaded Afghanistan and the intervention created great alarm for Pakistan. Historical czarist ambition for access to warm water of Arabian Sea was clear. Zia regime acted as front line of Afghan guerrilla war and sought political, economic and military support from US (Abdul Sattar, 2007). Religious feelings and Jihadi spirit were mobilized for Afghan resistance. Extremist elements were encouraged and supported economically for training Afghan and other Muslim nationals from a host of countries to wag war against Soviets. The freehand were given to the extremists and Jihadists. After the defeat of Soviet these Jihadists and extremists became trouble for Pakistan. The corruption, abundance of weapons and narcotics enflamed extremism to new heights.

Presently different concepts about Islam and Jihad are floating in the minds of the people. Some hold that Islam is a religion of wars and battles i.e. terrorism; others label it with extremism. In reality Islam neither promotes terrorism nor encourages extremism. It preaches tolerance and moderation. Islam forbids killing without justification. Similarly different concepts of Jihad are also agitating human minds and a distorted concept is being projected everywhere (Zamir Akhtar, 2008). The most common misunderstanding has been created by Muslims themselves. Many Muslim Scholars have declared Jihad synonymous with Qital (war). On the other hand after the incident of 9/11 Islam has been consciously or unconsciously amalgamated with war, terrorism and violence. Obviously, Islam cannot be blamed for the conduct of the Muslims, especially, when their conduct is not reflective of Islamic values. Islam is the most liberal and pluralist religion. In Islam there is no room for violence and terrorism except defensive war. Islam is special. It is more than a religion; it is a complete socio-political system (Dilip Hiro, 2008). That is, it has both cultural-ethical and political aspects.

US policies are one of the major causes of extremism in Muslim world especially Pakistan. US interference in Pakistan’s internal affairs has provoked extremism. US policy of do more and drone attacks aggravated extremism in Pakistan. Since September 2001 till today, that is, just within nine years the US has lost much of its good will. It has lost its moral foundations essentially because of its foreign policy. Anti-Americanism has increased due to its imperialistic attitude of not listening to its allies its outright disdain of international law, erosion of its moral ground imposition of its own culture and values upon others. Botched diplomacy, imperialistic policies and brutal expression of its power have left legacy of resentment, fear and anxiety especially in Muslim World (Qadar Bakhsh Baloch, 2006). Many Muslims stressed that Israel’s political and territorial strength has not been domestically resourced but it is American assistance. Further Muslims hold that the US has persistently overlooked that its side with the state that has been progressively taken over by Jewish extremists. From 1945 to 2003, the US attempted to overthrow than 40 foreign governments, and to crush more than 30 populist-nationalist movements fighting against intolerable regimes. In the process, the US bombed some 25 countries, caused the end of life for several million people, and condemned many million more to a life of agony and despair. America treats itself above all laws and conventions. Its shameless invasion of Iraq, the merciless massacre of its innocent civilians and horrific torture of suspects swelled the ranks of American-haters and created many a suicide bombers (S.G. Jilanee, 2010). Ineffective Security Council has established American hegemony at the cost of freedom of Muslim countries. The UN charter allows an attack against any aggressor, if it is in the common interest of the members states. Further the peace-keeping forces of Security Council could invade the country. After 9/11, the American resolution was unanimously passed against the Taliban’s regime. But, while invading Iraq, President Bush said, “We will bypass Security Council”. Unfortunately, this world body kept criminal silence over this injustice. The Charter promises that no country can interfere in the internal matters of the member state. In contrast, the SC resolutions on Kashmir have been declared outdated. Likewise, North Korea is only facing sanctions, even after launching successful nuclear tests. Whereas, Iran is continuously being threatened by use of force, as in Obama’s words “Iran’s nuclear programme is against American Security”. American blue eyed, Israel is adamant to implement agreed peace Accord. So, Security Council has been a shameful failure in protecting the legitimate rights of the Muslim world (Michael Scherer, 2009). The religious disharmony is the first causality of the extremism. The curse of extremism and intolerance, besides creating a rift between various religious factions, has widened the gulf between the followers of different beliefs. The conflict of interest and hidden motives had affected religious harmony in the country. Religious extremists have created sectarianism throughout the country. They are hitting the opposite sects and they interpreted Islam according to them and impose it upon others.

Though Pakistan is victim of extremism and terrorism yet it is labeled as sponsoring terrorism in the world. Though Pakistan has suffered a lot in the wage of terrorism yet World Community see Pakistan as safe heaven of terrorism. To improve the situation there must be a strong parliament to tackle this issue. There should be modern syllabus in Midrassas along with religious curriculum. Madrassas should be under the command of government. Pakistan should revise its policy towards war on terror. UNO should play effective role in solving international disputes.There must be sincere interfaith harmony among different religions. Global media should play constructive role. Social justice would provide base for up rooting of terrorism. US should revise its policies towards Muslim World especially towards Pakistan. Pakistan must be emphasized on education at maximum level.

                                                                       

America’s Quest for Global Dominance

In a macroscopic view of United States foreign policy from World War II to the post-Iraq War reconstruction it can be clearly seen the United States’ political, military and economic motives, in comparison, often in sharp contrast, to its outward rhetorical support for democracy, the Middle-East peace process, free trade, and human rights. There are clear differences between positions taken by the US government and the people of the world regarding a proposed invasion of Iraq. It can be examined the doctrinal thinking of the Establishment in the United Kingdom and the US, such as in regard to propaganda use, centralized decision making and imperialism of Western powers from recent American invasions to the European empires.

In September 2002 the Bush administration announced its National Security Strategy, which declared the right to resort to force to eliminate any perceived challenge to US global hegemony, which is to be permanent. The new grand strategy aroused deep concern worldwide, even within the foreign policy elite at home. Also in September, a propaganda campaign was launched to depict Saddam Hussein as an imminent threat to the United States and to insinuate that he was responsible for the 9/11 atrocities and was planning others. President Bush and his associates also persisted in undermining international efforts to reduce threats to the environment that are recognized to be severe, with pretexts that barely concealed their devotion to narrow sectors of private power.

Current U.S. policies in Afghanistan and Iraq are not a specific response to September 11, but simply the continuation of a consistent half-century of foreign policy an “imperial grand strategy” in which the United States has attempted to “maintain its hegemony through the threat or use of military force. U.S. legal code definition of terrorism, is an exact description of U.S. foreign policy (especially regarding Cuba, Central America, Vietnam and much of the Middle East), although the term is rarely used in this way in the U.S. media even when the World Court in 1986 condemned Washington for “unlawful use of force” in Nicaragua. U.S. is a rogue nation in its foreign policies and its “contempt for international law,”

Bush administration was determined to use terrorism as an excuse to pursue a radical right-wing agenda. Other states perceived the same opportunity. Russia eagerly joined the coalition against terror expecting to receive authorization for its atrocities in Chechnya, and was not disappointed. China happily joined for similar reasons. Israel recognized that it would be able to crush Palestinians even more brutally, with even firmer US support. And so on, throughout much of the world.

America’s strategy for the future is nothing less than the maintenance of American hegemony through the use or threat of military force, a strategy that threatens to leave the world a more dangerous and divided place. The only other world superpower is, with any chance whatever of curbing America’s ideologically driven quest for global dominance, World Public Opinion. It is a propaganda war waged upon the American public by the Bush administration. Now it is maintained and expanded by Obama Administration. This is by no means a new development. American foreign policy historically is showing a remarkably pattern of hypocrisy, racism, exploitation, and cynical manipulation of public opinion by successive US administrations. What is new and disturbing about the events leading up to the invasion of Iraq is the precedent America and Britain have set for establishing new norms of international law. The concept of “preventative war” must have its victims and those victims must be weak, yet important enough to be worth the trouble. Any country that is opposed to US interests but is capable of defending itself i.e., those with nuclear capabilities, will be left alone. The clear and catastrophic message to opponents of American hegemony is to get nuclear-quick. So the view of American foreign policy lies in stark contrast to that depicted by corporate media, popular pundits, and US heads of state.

There are many questions still waited for answer i.e., Was the United States really concerned with democracy when it supported a viscous proxy war in Nicaragua, even though their government had been democratically elected? Is the United States government hypocritical when it condemns state sponsored terrorism when it sponsored terrorism itself against such countries as Cuba and Nicaragua? And, how does the United States rationalize the School of the Americas, which has long been understood as a training ground for Latin American neo-fascist terrorists? Is the United States truly interested in peace in the Middle East when it denies the “Saudi Plan” set forth in early 2002, which would offer “full recognition and integration of Israel into the region in exchange for withdrawal to the 1967 borders?” Why did USA goes to war with Iraq when no imminent threat of WMD’s could be found, no connection to Al Qaida could be proven, and multiple studies were produced by leading agencies suggesting that invading Iraq would only decrease domestic security?

The answers are surprisingly consistent with what US foreign policy guided by imperial global expansion and military dominance. Countries must be aligned with US interest in order to ensure capital penetration and corporate and military hegemony. If a country does not choose to align, then it will wind up a target of US backed aggression, or branded a terrorist state. In 1965, Indonesia expressed its intention to elder statesman Ellsworth Bunker that they wished to stand on their own two feet in developing their economy, free from foreign, especially Western influence’. A National Intelligence Estimate in September 1965 warned that if the efforts of the mass-based PKI to energize and unite the Indonesian nation succeeded, Indonesia would provide a powerful example for the underdeveloped world and hence a credit to communism and a setback for Western prestige. A US backed coup ensued, killing a lot number of people, and installed the brutal dictator General Suharto. This is the cost, of not aligning with the “master” state.

There are other ways to get the job done, such via the UN, the World Court, and so forth. Given that the U.S. tends to dominate the UN and most other international agencies, this does seem to raise two important issues. First what really is the difference between the U.S. playing the hegemonic role via the UN, etc., and doing so all on its own? But second, it does show the arrogance of the U.S. that even dominating the world through international organizations it largely runs is still “not good enough” for it. Is America really an evil empire, I think an objective look at the historical record will provide the evidence that America has done well too for people than any country in the history of the world. The United States rebuilt Europe twice in the 20th century after two world wars. Europe was liberated from the Nazi menace primarily through the intervention of the United States. Eastern Europe was liberated from the tyranny of communism primarily because the United States was willing to take the leadership role in destroying it.

The U.S. neglect or spurning of the World Court and the UN, but these agencies were also set up by the imperialist powers, and serve to support the continuation of capitalist-imperialism. The only real solution to this problem of not just “U.S. world hegemony”, but of the capitalist-imperialist system that lies behind it, is social revolution. The basic problem, in both this country and the world, is the continued rule of the capitalist-imperialist class, and the basic solution to that problem is for the working people of the world to overthrow that murderous ruling class. U.S. economic dominance had fallen from 50% at its post-World War II high to only about half of that in 1973. Doesn’t that show that the U.S. is doing a pretty crappy job of dominating the world? In a similar vein, “why there is such a huge national debt and trade deficit if the U.S. is so in control of the world economy?” There is a giant, successful conspiracy running things in US. If the U.S. is actually dominating the world, and doing so for at least 60 years now, then there has to be some continuing, coherent political body within the U.S. that is coordinating all this. I think this body is the U.S. capitalist-imperialist ruling class which rules via its two main political parties, the Republicans and the Democrats, as well as through its ownership and control of almost all the media, education, and so forth.